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Avatar: The Last Airbender is conceptually influenced by the many different real-world cultures of the Pacific Rim. It is primarily influenced by East Asian cultures, as well as South Asian and Indigenous cultures, with contemporary American storytelling tropes interspersed throughout.
Stylistic influences Edit
The artistic and animation styles used in Avatar are clearly influenced by various Japanese Anime.
According to an interview with the artists of Avatar, Appa's design was based on the Catbus in My Neighbor Totoro, due to the peculiar task of creating a mammal with six legs.
Avatar draws inspiration from Shinichiro Watanabe's Cowboy Bebop and Samurai Champloo, as well as FLCL (Fooly Cooly) of Gainax. Other various studios from which inspiration was drawn include Studio 4 °C, Production I.G, and Studio Ghibli. Bryan has commented that some of his most cherished Watanabe fight scenes were the fight between Bebop's Spike Spiegel and a drug smuggler in "Asteroid Blues", as well as the duel between Mugen and Sara in the Champloo episode "Elegy of Entrapment (Verse 2)". Avatar director Giancarlo Volpe also claims the staff "were all ordered to buy FLCL and watch every single episode of it."
The choreographed martial art bending moves were profoundly affected by Asian cinema. Avatar creators Bryan Konietzko and Michael Dante DiMartino stated the particular influence in a magazine interview:
"Asian cinema is really good at action comedy. Shaolin Soccer is one of our favorite movies. It has tons of fantastic action and lots of funny moments. Some of the effects provided inspiration for how bending moves might look on the show."
In addition, the fight scenes in John Woo films have been alluded to as an influence, and there has been at least one tribute to him, in the episode "The Beach".
Star Wars is said to have been a reference, for its grand, epic feel. The basic plot-formula of the original Star Wars Trilogy seems to have been used for Avatar. In the first part, the world and concepts are introduced and it ends in a major battle where the protagonists succeed (A New Hope). In the second part, the concepts of the world are further explored, and it ends in a relative victory for the antagonists (The Empire Strikes Back). The third part involves a major moral conflict, and a major battle where the protagonists finally triumph over the enemy (Return of the Jedi).
Also, Aang's vision of Katara in trouble in "The Guru" mirrors Luke's vision of his friends in trouble in The Empire Strikes Back'.'
Book series and novels such as Harry Potter and The Lord of the Rings were a heavy influence in developing the story of Avatar. The creators wanted to tell their own epic "legend & love story". The creators have stated that they have relied on traditional archetypes and motifs for creating their characters. They have cited Joseph Campbell's ideas as an influence in creating the storyline and characters for the show.
Cultural influences Edit
General influences Edit
The Avatar world borrows significantly from Chinese culture, Indian culture, and other Far Eastern cultures.
- Tea is a popular drink in the Avatar world. The practice of drinking tea began in Tang Dynasty China. It spread throughout Asia and eventually the world. Tea remains one of the most popular drinks in China, along with the rest of the world. Various teas mentioned by Iroh are real teas, for example Jasmine tea.
- The Avatar world uses Traditional Chinese characters, which were created in China, and spread to Korea and Japan. Both seal script (which was only extensively used mainly in China, and writing engraved on rock, etc.) and clerical script (written on paper) are used.
- Everyone regularly uses or can use chopsticks, which are the primary eating utensil throughout East Asia.
- Concepts like yin and yang as well as balance are influenced by Chinese beliefs.
The elements Edit
The Five Elements were first developed in India and the Five Classical Elements of Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahabhuta): earth, water, air, fire, and Aether, have not only been influential in the development of the elements in other cultures i.e. Japanese (Godai) and Tibetan (Bon), but being hugely influential on the show, providing the backbone of the five elements seen in the Avatar series.
- These elements are not to be confused with the Five Chinese movements, water, fire, wood, metal, and earth.
- In "The Book of Five Rings", Japanese samurai warrior Miyamoto Musashi wrote five books of military strategy and martial arts: The Book of Earth, The Book of Water, The Book of Fire, The Book of Wind, and The Book of Nothing. These five books relate the elements to the idea of different styles of "battle". The 'bending' in Avatar is a literal representation of this concept.
- A common element throughout these different philosophies is the idea of an intangible Fifth element—Aether, the Void, Space, etc. represented in the Avatar: The Last Airbender series through the Spirit World, the Avatar State, and energybending.
Water Tribes Edit
Because the Water Tribes are located in polar regions, they are primarily based on the circumpolar Inuit, Yupik, and Sireneki Eskimo cultures. However, their culture also includes references to many other aboriginal, indigenous, and pacific islander cultures.
- The people of the Water Tribe live in igloos and yurts, wear anoraks and mukluks, and rely on fishing. They use animal skins and furs and wear warpaint into battle.
- Their fleet of ships distinctly resembles Polynesian Catamarans, and their culture also draws references to moon myths from Native American, Chinese, and Japanese cultures.
- Sokka, a Southern Water Tribe Warrior, uses a boomerang, a curved weapon used by Australian Aborigines and other tribal people around the world, including Native Americans and South Asians.
- The architecture of the Northern Water Tribe appears to have been influenced by Venice's gondolas and canal systems. It also resembles the layout of the ancient capital of the Aztecs, Tenochtitlan.
Earth Kingdom Edit
The architecture, clothing and culture of the Earth Kingdom seems to be primarily based on China, with Korean and Japanese influences, as well as containing tribes or towns that resemble other cultures.
- The Earth Kingdom is extremely large and diverse, and contains different cultures within itself.
- Earth Kingdom architecture has had Chinese influences.
- Earth Kingdom cuisine is almost entirely based on Chinese cuisine. Examples of dishes that the Earth Kingdom and the Chinese share are roast duck and jook.
- With the exception of Ba Sing Se, Earth Kingdom clothing is almost entirely based off pre-Manchu China. The Beifong family's clothing is largely inspired by Tang Dynasty clothing.
- The government of Ba Sing Se is similar to Chinese government under Jinyiwei of the Ming Dynasty. The information control and propaganda is reminiscent of its near police state, with total control of the populace through harsh laws and secret police.
- Many Earth Kingdom citizens wear topknots, which originated in Asia. They are prevalent in India (Sikha), Japan (Chonmage), Korea (Sangtu) and Thailand and do not offer distinction between different social classes.
- Chin the Conqueror is a reference to King Zheng of Qin, who unified China and took up the title Qin Shihuangdi, literally, "First Emperor of Qin".
- Earth Kingdom Army uniform is related to that of ancient Chinese army uniforms.
- The "Beifong Theme" leitmotif that the Track Theme uses throughout scenes where Toph invokes her family's influence is based on a Qing Dynasty folk song, Mo Li Hua.
- Although the mainland of the Earth Kingdom resembles China, Kyoshi Island bears a closer resemblance to Japan. The Kyoshi Warriors use face make-up resembling that of a geisha, a Japanese female entertainer, and they also draw influence in their use of the katana, a traditional Japanese sword.
Ba Sing Se Edit
Ba Sing Se, the capital of the Earth Kingdom is based on ancient Chinese capitals such as Beijing (Peking), as the creators were inspired by the idea of an isolated city. It also has significant influences from Qing Dynasty China.
- More often found in Ba Sing Se is the queue hairstyle. It can be worn by all men, with no social distinction. Such practice parallels the manchu queue, forced upon the Han population of China after 1644.
- All the Ba Sing Se costumes are inspired by Qing Dynasty dress. For example, the haiku girls wear headpieces reminiscent of headpieces worn by Qing Dynasty court ladies. Also, the Earth King wears very similar clothing to the Qing Dynasty Emperors. The Earth King's costume is clearly an allusion to a famous painting of Xianfeng Emperor.
- The Royal Palace is largely based on the Forbidden City. It has similar architecture, but the Earth Kingdom Royal Palace compound is circular, not square unlike the Forbidden City.
- The Lower Ring of Ba Sing Se is visually based on many towns and marketplaces in the Central Jiangxi Province.
- The Dai Li resemble and are named after the leader of the Chinese Nationalist Secret Police, General Dai Li of the Kuomingtang. Their uniform is similar to that worn by guards of the Inner Forbidden Palace; it is also reminiscent of that worn by the scholar officials (mandarins) of Qing China. In parallel, Long Feng has a hat befitting of a high ranking Ancient Chinese official, while the lower ranking Dai Li have the hats of lower ranking Ancient Chinese officials.
- The Outer Wall's design and scale is based on the Great Wall of China, except that the Outer Wall is a defense ring, unlike the Great Wall, which is a line of defense. The walls of Ba Sing Se are much taller than the actual Great Wall, as the creators wanted it to feel more massive.
- Just as the Great Wall is visible from out space, the Great Walls of Ba Sing Se are always drawn onto maps of the Earth Kingdom.
- Palanquins, used by the Earth King, were also used in China by the upper classes. One particularly large and luxurious type of palanquin was reserved for the emperor.
Fire Nation Edit
The culture of the Fire Nation is primarily inspired by China, South Asia and South-East Asia. In addition, its government, politics and position in the world seem to draw influence from Imperialist China, as well as other expansionist and warrior cultures.
- A parallel can be drawn between the Hundred Year War and the Second Sino-Japanese War (concurrent to World War II). The Fire Nation successfully invade large swathes of Earth Kingdom territory but victory always eludes them. Similarly, the Japanese capture most of Northern China, along with the Chinese capital at Nanjing, but still fail to win the war.
- The wording in the episode where Fire Lord Sozin discussed the invasion of other nations is not a coincidence. In World War II, the Japanese Empire used an ideological construct, "Dai Toa Kyoeikan" ("The Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere") to justify invading China and conquering the South Pacific, just as the Fire Nation has invaded the Earth Kingdom and Water Tribes.
- The military uniforms of the Fire Nation are clearly based on military uniforms of ancient Chinese militaries, as are many weapons. Fire Nation attire often resembles Chinese Hanfu. Zuko is sometimes depicted wearing a shenyi.
- In one scene, Zuko and Iroh are shown cutting off their top-knots to symbolize their separation from their family and their Nation, a practice that occurred in ancient, feudal Japan, China before the Manchu invasion and Korea.
- The Fire Nation is located on the equator, and is a highly volcanic place. Therefore, it is geographically based on places like Indonesia, Hawaii, Iceland, and Japan. Photographs of many geographically interesting parts of Iceland were used directly in designing Fire Nation Geography.
- The Agni Kai is a form of "honor duel" commonly seen in warrior societies in South Asia, particularly South India and Sri Lanka. It literally translates to 'Duel of Fire' or 'Fire Quarrel'.
- The Fire Nation has a strong military-industrial complex and a very nationalistic culture replete with propaganda and cult of personality to their ruler, the Fire Lord. The schoolbooks of Fire Nation children are censored to teach them misleading information about the war, similar to schoolbooks in post World War II Japan. These traits are also commonly found in communist countries, such as Maoist China and North Korea, though such traits can also be found in non-communist countries like modern USA.
- The creators of Avatar have stated that it is the practice of the Fire Nation for potential rulers to have to "prove their worth" through difficult challenges. This is a practice in many warrior cultures.
- Palanquins, used by Fire Nation royal family members, were also used in China by the upper classes. One particularly large and luxurious type of palanquin was reserved for the emperor.
- The Fire Nation is the most industrialized nation in the Avatar world and relies heavily on coal, just as the use of coal during period such as the Meiji restoration, Republican China, and specially, the First Industrial Revolution in the British Empire.
- The architecture of the Fire Nation is mix of South-East Asian, and Chinese architecture. South-East Asia influence can be clearly seen on the Fire Nation Royal Palace, Ember Island and the homes in many Fire Nation villages.
- The Sun Warrior's compound includes architecture inspired by Hindu and Buddhist architecture, found in Southeast Asian landmarks such as the Candi Sukuh, Angkor Wat, and Phanom Rung. The Warriors' dress is also reminiscent of traditional Southeast Asian warrior dress, particularly the headdresses which resemble Iban feather headdresses.
- The Sun Warriors themselves are very similar to the Mayans and the Aztecs of North America.
- In Fire Nation weddings, the bride has her hair up in the same way Korean Queens had theirs.
Air Nomads Edit
The Air Nomads are based primarily on Tibetan culture and architecture, as well as the Indian concept of Buddhism. Other influences include Hinduism—notably, the seven chakras.
- Many Buddhist and Hindu religious groups preach vegetarianism, which the Air Nomads followed.
- The Air Nomads were monks. Their bald heads, clothing and meditation closely followed the practices of real world Buddhist monks.
- Tibetans use a set of toys to find the next Tulku Lama, which the Air Nomads also did when looking for the new Avatar.
- Like the Dalai Lama, Aang was the reincarnated spiritual leader of his people.
- Aang's Air Temple mentor was named Monk Gyatso, and his son bears the name Tenzin. The current Dalai Lama's real name is Tenzin Gyatso.
- Aang's clothing in season one and two closely resemble the saffron robes of Shaolin Monks. These were in turn based on the robes of Buddhist monks who visited from India.
- The architecture of the air temples resembled real-world brick pagodas similar to the famous Indian "Pagoda Forest". The Pagoda itself is an Indian architectural design and as such there are many such "Pagoda Forests" in India.
- In Season 3, Aang's wears clothing similar to the Dalai Lama. In Buddhist tradition, the right arm of the Dalai Lama is always kept uncovered. In his late-season 3 clothing, which is similar in style, Aang's right arm is also uncovered.
- Monk Gyatso and Aang used airbending to lightheartedly make cakes, much to the chagrin of the other elders. In Tibetan Buddhism, gtor-ma cakes are sacrificial cakes used in ceremonies and play an important role in Tibetan culture.
Martial arts Edit
The erratic, circular movements of airbending are derived from Ba Gua. It is sometimes called Bagua Zhang's, a characteristic method of stance and movement based on the theory of continuously changing in response to the situation at hand in order to overcome an opponent with skill rather than brute force. It is more broadly grouped as an internal practice.
Airbending is notable for being almost entirely defensive, however it is reputed to be the most dynamic of the four bending arts. Airbenders can overwhelm many opponents at once with large and powerful attacks that could prove fatal; however due to the pacifist nature of the Air Nomads such attacks are rarely used.
The slow, flowing movements of Tai Chi are the basis of waterbending. In the real world, Tai Chi, and the martial practice of Tai Chi Chuan, is classified as an "internal style", which means that it emphasizes refinement and relaxation before aggression. It emphasizes alignment, body structure, breath, and visualization.
Waterbenders have the ability to heal by using water as a catalyst for manipulating Chi paths in the body. Tai Chi is said to have many health benefits, particularly in the non-martial realm of Tai Chi Chih. This form focuses on developing and balancing one's chi.
The firmly rooted stances and powerful strikes of Hung Gar are the basis for earthbending. In the real world, Hung Gar is an "external style", which means that its art emphasizes use of the art for defense purposes before refinement and relaxation.
Toph's bending Edit
Toph's bending is unique in that it is based on Chu Gar Southern Praying Mantis instead of Hung Gar. This style, also "external", emphasizes more close-range attacks from the upper body, keeping the feet firmly on the ground or very close to it.
The fast, hard, aggressive strikes of Northern Shaolin style are used for firebending. The style sacrifices defense for fierce attacks. Northern Shaolin is complex and subtle art that retains a pure essence of structured movement and posture. In the Chinese martial art classification system, Northern Shaolin is an "external" art.
Firebending is notable for its intensive attacking style and general lack of adequate defense moves, although some notable firebenders utilize creative defensive moves. For example, Jeong Jeong can create fire walls, and Zuko can easily block and shoot down incoming objects.
- Main article: Boomerang
Sokka's boomerang is based on the 'returning boomerangs' one of two curved weapons used by Australian Aborigines. Other tribal people around the world, including Native Americans and South Asians, have used boomerangs to hunt, but these boomerangs would not return to the thrower. The name 'boomerang' was used by the Turuwal Aborigines who lived in South Sydney, and used only to refer to boomerangs which did return.
Dual dao swords Edit
- Main article: Dual dao swords
Zuko dual-wields dao sabres, often while in his Blue Spirit persona. One of the four major Chinese weapons, the dao is known as "the general of all weapons". Unlike Sokka's space sword, Zuko's swords are like traditional dao—single handed and single edged.
Jet's hook swords Edit
- Main article: Hook swords
Also known as tiger hook swords or qian kun ri yue dao (literally "Heaven and Sun Moon Sword"), these weapons have a blade similar to that of the jian, though possibly thicker or unsharpened, with a prong or hook (similar to a shepherd's crook) near the tip. Guards are substantial, in the style of butterfly swords. Often used in pairs, the hooks of the weapons may be used to trap or deflect other weapons.
Sokka's space sword Edit
Sokka's "space sword" is a Jian, a Chinese straight sword. The Jian, a double-edged straight sword, has a 2,500 year old history and is considered one of the major Chinese weapons. Known as "The Gentleman of Weapons" the Jian is a multi-purpose weapon used for cutting, thrusting, slashing, and stabbing. One of the trademarks of Chinese wuxia storytelling, special Jian swords, like Sokka's "space sword" are often featured prominently in the story.
Religious influences Edit
- The term "Avatar" comes from the Sanskrit word Avatāra, (Sanskrit: अवतार), which means "descent". In Hindu mythology, gods manifest themselves into Avatars to restore balance on earth, usually during a period of great evil.
- In order to master the Avatar State, Aang studies the Chakras with a Guru.
- The firebending third eye of Combustion Man is taken directly from the third eye of Shiva, the Hindu God of Dance and Destruction. Combustion Man's eye is in exactly the same shape and design, and performs a similar function to Shiva's eye, which would burn the entire universe to ashes if he opened it.
- Aang's vegetarian diet is based on the dietary habits of Hindu priests rather than Buddhist monks, as Buddhism does not explicitly forbid meat-eating.
- Agni, which the series incorporates in "Agni Kai", is both the name of the Hindu God of fire and one of the Sanskrit and Bengali words for fire. In Bengali, Kai or Kaio translates to duel or quarrel. Therefore Agni Kai can be loosely translated to mean 'Duel of Fire' or 'Fire Quarrel'. The Agni Kai is still practiced in South Asia.
- The name of earthbender Bumi, is based on the Sanskrit word for earth, "Bhumi". Bhumidevi is also the name of the Hindu Earth Goddess, or Mother Earth.
- Naga, Korra's animal companion in the new series The Legend of Korra, is named after the king snake in Hindu mythology.
- Rohan (Youngest son of Tenzin and Pema) is a popular Indian name meaning "ascending" in Sanskrit.
- In the commentary for "Sozin's Comet, Part 2: The Old Masters", the creators stated that the scenes where Aang speaks to his past lives are influenced by the Bhagavad Gita.
- The concept of the sun temple and sun worship in "The Firebending Masters" is based on the sun temples found in India, especially Konark Sun Temple is Orrissa. The sun warriors are based on The Gurjars, who worship the God and solar deity Surya.
- The four elements in Avatar are the same ones used in Hinduism with the exception of the fifth element, energy. In Hinduism, it is called Space or the Aether which is close to the concept of Energybending.
- The Air monks lifestyles, features, practice, and more are based upon Buddhist monks.
- The Four Elements of the series—water, earth, fire, and air—are derived from the Buddhist concept of catudhātu. The primary Four Elements of Buddhism are a basis for understanding and for liberating oneself from suffering.
- Energybending may be an allusion to the less frequently mentioned fifth and six elements, Space and Consciousness.
- In "The Swamp", the character Hue states that he reached enlightenment under the Banyan Grove Tree. This is an allusion to Siddhārtha Gautama attaining enlightenment under the Bodhi tree to become the Buddha.
- Also stated in "Avatar Extras", Zuko's transformation in Book Two reflects as well the story of Siddhārtha Gautama.
- Tenzin and Monk Gyatso bear the name of the current Dalai Lama.
- The process of finding a new Dalai Lama is simlar to the process of discovering the Avatar. After Roku dies, Aang is discovered as the Avatar through the task of choosing four toys shortly after his birth. The same process is used in choosing a new Dalai Lama: asking questions to the candidate to see if they truly are the new Dalai Lama.
- Concept of Yin and Yang. The prime example would be the spirit of the moon and sea fish which are black and white, where one cannot function without the other.
- The existence of a Spirit World.
- Various symbols of the Dao.
- The "go with the flow" attitudes of waterbenders.
- Bumi's attitude of 'doing nothing' resembles the Taoist ideal of 'wuwei' (doing nothing), proposed by the Chinese sage Laozi as a means to doing something without direct action.
- The diverse nature spirits that interact with the people of the Avatar world are reminiscent of Kami. They also (perhaps more closely) resemble nature spirits worshiped by many tribal cultures.
- Most of the "good guys" on Avatar are shown to have respect and reverence for nature. Respect of nature is one of the "four affirmations" of the Shinto spirit.
- While solar worship is omnipresent in the world's non-abrahamic religions, the Sun Warrior set of beliefs appears to be inspired by both Hindu and Mesoamerican sun centered beliefs, specially in regards to fire being considered a life force and associated to dragons. Ancient Mesoamericans depicted relevant deities as serpents (of particular relevance is Tohil, one of the Mayan gods of the Sun, which is depicted as a dragon). Also the concept of the sun temple and sun worship has been directly influenced by the sun temples found in India, especially Konark Sun Temple is Orrissa.The connection of fire with the Sun and dragons also draws parallels to the Egyptian veneration of Wadjet and the levantine seraphs, which were originally depicted as fiery winged dragons rather than humanoid angels.
- While a parallel with the rise of Communism is the most thought real life parallel of the Equalists, their movement bears much more similarities to the Taiping Rebellion, as Amon fashions himself as a spiritual leader and tries to replace the Avatar and become a messianic figure, similarly to Hong Xiuquan, leader of the Taiping movement.