|By LenPoles||Part of thecontinuity.|
Republic of Poland
|Form of Government||
|Head of State||
Head of State
President of Poland
President Lech Kaczyński
Poland (Polish: Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north. The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi), making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. Poland has a population of over 38 million people, which makes it the 34th most populous country in the world and the sixth most populous member of the European Union, being its most populous post-communist member. Poland is a unitary state made up of sixteen voivodeships. Poland is a member of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Economic Area, International Energy Agency, Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, International Atomic Energy Agency and G6.
Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa) is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly 260 kilometres (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population is 1,700,000 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,630,000 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most populous city proper in the European Union. The area of the city covers 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the city's agglomeration covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi).
Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination and an important economic hub in Central and Eastern Europe. It is also known as the "phoenix city" because it has survived many wars throughout its bloody history. Most notably when the city had to be painstakingly rebuilt after the extensive damage it suffered from World War II, during which 80% of its buildings were destroyed. On 9 November 1940 the city was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari, for the Siege of Warsaw (1939).
Warsaw has given its name to the Warsaw Confederation, the Warsaw Pact, the Duchy of Warsaw, the Warsaw Convention, the Treaty of Warsaw, the Warsaw Uprising and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The Warszawianka is widely considered the unofficial anthem of the city.
- Main article: Fanon:Szczecin
Kraków also Cracow, or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life and is one of Poland's most important economic hubs. It was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596; the capital of the Grand Duchy of Kraków from 1846 to 1918; and the capital of Kraków Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1999. It is now the capital of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading centre of Slavonic Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre. The city has a population of approximately 760,000 whereas about 8 million people live within a 100 km radius of its main square.
After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, Kraków was turned into the capital of Germany's General Government. The Jewish population of the city was moved into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to extermination camps such as Auschwitz and the concentration camp at Płaszów.
In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II – the first Slavic pope ever, and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Also that year, UNESCO approved the first ever sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Cracow's Historic Centre.
Pomerania (German: Pommern, Polish: Pomorze, Kashubian: Pòmòrze or Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania or Pomorania) is a region on the south shore of the Baltic Sea. Divided between Germany and Poland, it stretches roughly from the Recknitz River near Stralsund in the West, via the Oder River delta near Szczecin, to the mouth of the Vistula River near Gdańsk in the East. Pomerania was strongly affected by 20th century, post-World War I and II border and population shifts.
Pomerania belongs to the lowlands of the North European Plain. Outside its few urban centers − most notably the Szczecin and Tricity metropolitan areas − the poor soil is mostly used as farmland, dotted with numerous lakes, forests, and small towns. Agriculture primarily consists of raising livestock, forestry, fishery and the cultivation of cereals, sugar beets, and potatoes. Since the late 19th century, tourism has become an important sector of the economy, primarily in the numerous seaside resorts along the coast. Of the limited industrial zones, the most important products are ships, metal products, refined sugar, and paper.
- West Pomerania Voivodship
- (capital of Voivodship)
- Stargard Szczeciński
- Pomerania Voivodship
- Gdańsk (capital of Voivodship)
- Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
Warmia and Masuria
Masuria (Polish: Mazury; German: Masuren) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes. Geographically, Masuria is part of two adjacent lakeland districts, the Masurian Lake District (Polish: Pojezierze Mazurskie) and the Iława Lake District (Pojezierze Iławskie). Administratively, it belongs to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo warmińsko-mazurskie).
The landscape of the region was formed by the last ice age around 14,000 - 15,000 years ago in Pleistocene. The terrain is mostly hilly, with connecting lakes, rivers and streams. Forests account for about 30% of the area. The northern part of Masuria is covered mostly by the broadleaved forest, while the southern part is dominated by pine and mixed forests.
The region's economy relies largely on eco-tourism and agriculture. The lakes for which the region is best known offer varieties of water sports, recreation and vacation activities.
Warmia (Polish: Warmia, Latin: Varmia) or Ermeland (German: Ermland) is a region between Pomerelia and Masuria in northeastern Poland. Together with Masuria, it forms the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
To the west of Warmia is Pomesania, to the south is Chełmno Land, Sassinia, and Masuria (earlier called Galindia), to the east is Sambia, and to the north is the Vistula Bay. Warmia has been under the dominion of various states and peoples over the course of its history, most notably the Old Prussians, the Teutonic Knights, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Kingdom of Prussia. The history of the region is closely connected to that of the Archbishopric of Warmia (formerly, Duchy of Warmia).
Greater Poland or Great Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska [vjɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (German: Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief city is Poznań.
The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history. The region roughly coincides with the present-day voivodeship called Greater Poland Voivodeship (Polish: województwo wielkopolskie), although some parts of historic Greater Poland are within the Kuyavian-Pomeranian, Łódź and Lubusz Voivodeship.
Uprisings in Greater Poland
- Gorzów Wielkopolski
Lesser Poland (also Little Poland, Polish Małopolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland, with its capital in the city of Kraków. It forms the southeastern corner of the country, and should not be confused with the modern Lesser Poland Voivodeship, which covers only a small, southern part of Lesser Poland. Historical Lesser Poland is much bigger than the current voivodeship which bears its name; stretching from Częstochowa in the west to the lands northeast of Lublin in the east. In the late Middle Ages, Lesser Poland gradually became the center of Polish statehood, with Kraków being the capital of the country from mid-11th century until 1596. Its nobility ruled Poland when Queen Jadwiga was too young to control the state, and the Union of Krewo with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the brainchild of Lesser Poland's szlachta.
In the 17th century, the importance of Lesser Poland diminished, when Warsaw and centrally located province of Mazovia emerged as key parts of the nation. Lesser Poland's territory was divided along the Vistula river line between Austrian Empire and Russian Empire during the Partitions of Poland. Its boundaries are now often limited only to its southern, smaller part controlled throughout the 19th century by Austria as western Galicia. As a result of this long-lasting division, many inhabitants of northern part of this historic province of Poland (with such cities, as Lublin, Radom, and Kielce) have lost their Lesser Poland's identity. Today, Lesser Poland is divided between several voivodeships, as seen on the map on the right – whole Lesser Poland Voivodeship, whole Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, western half of Lublin Voivodeship, western part of Subcarpathian Voivodeship, eastern half of Silesian Voivodeship, southern part of Mazovian Voivodeship and southeastern corner of Łódź Voivodeship (around Opoczno).
Mazovia or Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical, historical and cultural region in east-central Poland. It is also a voivodeship (an administrative region) in Poland.
Its historic capital is Płock, which was the medieval residence of first Dukes of Masovia. Different capitals of individual former duchies of Mazovia also include Czersk and later Warsaw.
- Warsaw (Warszawa)
The Sudetes /suːˈdiːtiːz/ is a mountain range in Central Europe. It is also known as the Sudeten (German [zuˈdeːtən]) or Sudety (Czech [ˈsudetɪ], Polish [suˈdɛtɨ]) Mountains.
The Sudetes stretch from eastern Germany to Poland and the Czech Republic. The highest peak is Sněžka, (Polish: Śnieżka, German: Schneekoppe) in the Krkonoše (Polish: Karkonosze) Mountains on the Czech-Polish border, which is 1,602 metres (5,256 ft) in altitude. The current geomorphological unit in the Czech part of the mountain range is Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie ("Krkonoše-Jeseníky").
The Krkonoše Mountains have experienced growing tourism for winter sports during the past ten years. Their skiing resorts are becoming a budget alternative to the Alps.
- Sněžka (Śnieżka) - 1,602 m (5,256 ft)
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc roughly 1,500 km (932 mi) long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains, 1,700 km (1,056 mi)). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species. The Carpathians and their piedmont also concentrate many thermal and mineral waters, with Romania home to over one-third of the European total. Romania is likewise home to the largest surface of virgin forests in Europe (except Russia), totaling 250,000 hectares (65%), most of them in the Carpathians, with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe's largest unfragmented forested area.
The Carpathians consist of a chain of mountain ranges that stretch in an arc from the Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%) and Ukraine (11%) to Romania (53%) in the east and on to the Iron Gates on the River Danube between Romania and Serbia (2%) in the south. The highest range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, on the border of Poland and Slovakia, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m (8,530 ft). The second-highest range is the Eastern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m (8,202 ft).
The Carpathians are usually divided into three major parts: the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia), the Central Carpathians (southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania), and the Eastern Carpathians (Romania, Serbia).
The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are: Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia; Kraków in Poland; Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu and Braşov in Romania; and Miskolc in Hungary.
Silesia (Polish: Śląsk; German: Schlesien; Silesian German: Schläsing; Czech: Slezsko; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Latin: Silesia) is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.
Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław. Other large cities are Opole and Katowice in Poland, Ostrava and Opava in the Czech Republic, and Görlitz in Germany. Its main river is the Oder (in German; in Polish and Czech: Odra).
Silesia's borders and national affiliation have changed radically over time, both when it was a hereditary possession of noble houses and after the rise of modern nation-states. The first known states to hold power there were those of Greater Moravia at end of 9th century and Bohemia early in the 10th century. In the 10th century Silesia was incorporated into the early Polish state, but it later broke into independent duchies, coming under increasing Czech and German influence. It came under the rule of the Crown of Bohemia, which passed to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy in 1526. Most of Silesia was conquered by Prussia in 1742, later becoming part of the German Empire and German Reich up to 1945. After World War I (1918) the easternmost part of this region was awarded to Poland by the victorious Allies after rebellions by Silesian Polish people and a plebiscite. After World War II (1945) the bulk of Silesia was transferred to Polish jurisdiction and become legally and politically part of Poland. Meanwhile the remaining small parts of Silesia mostly went to Czechoslovakia after World War I, and are now in the Czech Republic.
Most inhabitants of Silesia today speak the national languages of their respective countries (Polish, Czech, German). There is an ongoing debate whether a local Silesian speech should be considered a Polish dialect or a separate language. There also exists a Silesian German or Lower Silesian language, although this form of German is almost extinct.
- Zielona Góra (literally Green Mountain)
- ↑ Just in Xiaons (in real 1,716,850)
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